Iran reportedly has recruited more than 1,600 Pakistanis in the past six months to fight in its militias in Syria and is running influence campaigns in an attempt to change Pakistani public opinion.
The Taliban are spreading conspiracy theories in an attempt to undermine a meeting of religious scholars aimed at finding a solution to the war in Afghanistan.
Despite the hurdles, recent goodwill gestures shown by Prime Minister Imran Khan to establish peaceful ties with India are a positive step.
Analysts say the US Secretary of State's recent visit to Pakistan carries the potential to 'reset' the recently strained relationship between the two countries.
US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo said he was 'pleased' with his meetings with Pakistani officials and hopeful that Pakistan will support the US efforts to end the Afghan conflict.
The cross-border movement of militants to and from Afghanistan has strained Pakistani-US relations in recent years.
'Pakistan has an important role to play' in the Afghan peace process, said US envoy Alice Wells.
The improvement of ties between Moscow and Islamabad will jeopardise Pakistan's relations with the rest of the world, analysts say.
The Afghanistan-Pakistan Action Plan for Peace and Solidarity (APAPPS) sets the framework to strengthen relations, particularly on mutual security and economic issues, observers say.
A unified front and stronger relations are necessary to fight terrorism and bring sustainable peace to the region, analysts on both sides of the border say.